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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 92-97

Optico-chiasmatic hypothalamic cavernomas - A report of three cases and review of literature


Apollo Proton Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Roopesh V R Kumar
Apollo Proton Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcvs.jcvs_8_22

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Optochiasmatic hypothalamic cavernous malformations (CMs) are exceedingly rare lesions and can manifest with visual deficits of varying magnitudes. They also can result in sudden-onset visual loss due to apoplexy. Magnetic resonance imaging can delineate the lesions and differentiate it from other common lesions like glioma or craniopharyngioma. Preoperative visual assessment including perimetry and optical coherence tomogram has to be performed whenever possible to assess the degree of deficits and also for prognostication. Microsurgical excision improves the visual deficits in majority of instances as documented by earlier reports and has to be undertaken as an emergency in apoplexy. Various corridors can be used to reach the lesion including anterolateral, midline transbasal anterior interhemispheric approach, and transnasal endoscopic approaches. The aim should be to achieve a gross total excision with minimal manipulation of surrounding white matter tracts to improve the visual outcome. There is a limited role for stereotactic radiosurgery. In the present study, we report three cases of CMs involving optic chiasm and hypothalamus including a case of apoplexy managed by gross total microsurgical resection with good outcome and also review the relevant literature on the natural history and management strategies


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